Sport Physiology

Sportive Thema 03 VMA is a new Biotest of Daphne laboratories that supplies functional information the charge of Vitamins, Minerals, Amino acids. It is possible, also, understanding The metabolism of the sugar and their intrinsic mechanism in the regulation of the efforts in rest conditions, aerobic sport and anaerobic sport. Percentege indicators of the right consumes of sugar and the regulation of the churges of Vitamins, Minerals and Amino acids make this Biotest unique and new.

VMA is the more requested test for the sportmen, athletics, coaches and dietitians of the fitness. Our goal was that one to create a test able to conciliate the needs of the sportman with that one of his coach: we succeeded!
After about a year of work the sport VMA is stated as the best test in the sport’s field. The description pages of the metabolism of the sugars in aerobic and anaerobic condition permit to best understand how to use own muscles, how to direct the body and the metabolism to a more healthy and coherent management of the workouts, in order that every fitness objective is adequate to the performances.

VMA- the structural index

VMA is the initials for Vitamins, Minerals and Amino acids; essential substances to the life and in the sport stress condition. The knowledge of their deficiency and their excesses allow the drawing up of the right diet by the fitness coach. The adjustment to scale, the elimination of the metabolic toxins and the buffering acidic / basic conditions through the right alternation of brick VMA brings the body to a better position to deal with the fitness.
The knowledge of its rhythms sports of its structural system of vitamins, minerals and amino acids, the awareness of sugar metabolism leads to better control themselves, their limits of race and plan the right race tactics and team. The sugar metabolism indicate to which type sports tend, which uses sugar better the Krebs cycle to produce energy in the cell under stress, which must not be used in the diet of pre-workout.
Thanks to the indexes and sporting relations between vitamins, minerals and amino acids, it has a clear idea of how he is behaving metabolism in muscle stress, whether it is lowering its oxidative metabolism because you are doing too much sport or because you are following a diet too unbalanced.

The VMA, therefore, is a method of functional assessment of the contribution of nutrients such as amino acids, vitamins, mineral salts and carbohydrates, all useful substances for cell metabolism for those who do sports at any age. Now let’s see in detail the functionality of individual nutrients: The Amino acids are the fundamental building blocks of PROTEINS, are essential to the vital functions of the body, they are the structure of muscles, ligaments, tendons. Vitamins are essential to maintaining optimal physiological conditions of the organism, because they act as biocatalysts in the metabolic processes of nutrients and energy processes. They are also called “protective foods” because without them the cells fail to release energy. Carbohydrates have as main task the production of energy, essential for vital processes of the organism.
Take part, also, the establishment of vitamin factors, enzyme systems, in cellular structures such as DNA and cell membranes.
The Carbohydrates are the main source of energy in the body. Minerals are essential for carrying out various body functions, account for about 4% of total body weight; they are fundamental constituents of cells and various tissues and provide the acid-base balance of the blood (pH); they regulate, finally, the general water metabolism and blood volume.

… Sport Diet the VMA contribution
For those who make sport, the feeding plays a key role and it is important that the athletes knows what are the foods that can help him in his activity and in what quantities and how must assume them to be able to reap all the possible benefits.

All this is possible with our test.
There are, in fact, different types of feeding to be followed depending on the type of activity that is practiced.
As well as proteins, they play a fundamental role the Carbohydrates, which guarantee the mental concentration and the reaction’s speed, the vitamins and mineral salts. The diet of athletes, therefore, has to include a lot of fruits and vegetables, lean meat, fish, whole foods. In conclusion, the nutrients are more healthy and balanced they are in absolute that ones that the body gets from fresh food, then it is enough a varied and well balanced feeding to ensure to us all the vitamins and minerals you need.

The Sports Thema 03 VMA is the only Biotest dedicated to athletes, considering the stage of pre-training, hard training and race post-training, with the index of metabolisms, evaluation of sugars metabolism, explanatory graphics and it codes Vitamins, Minerals and Amino acids

Metabolic indexes an help in Sport
The metabolic indexes specify the characteristics of the “biological engine” and a right balance between these indexes it is essential for a perfect functioning of the cell machine. A deficiency of any of the macro or micro-nutrients can pass deleteriously on the entire organism. The pi-greek index indicates the status of cellular aging, the ratio between vitamins (vit. A, C, E and Selenium) and Trimethylglycine, a methylating agent; it plays an important role especially in the process of detoxification of homocysteine (powerful oxidant and free radical generator).
Its benefits: improves the glucose metabolism, improves the oxygen utilization, relieves chronic fatigue, ideal help in sporting competitions. The GH a hormone of pituitary origin allows the absorption and utilization in the muscle of amino acids. Taurine, which has an antioxidant action, and indispensable for the functions of muscle tissue nervous, as has the role of neurotransmitter. Creatine is a molecule which, enriched by a phosphate group, is the only source of quick energy for muscle (anaerobic system alactacid).

The muscle cells are differentiated to perform the function of contraction. In practice, they possess the ability to become shorter and this involves the generation of a force to the ends of the cell itself.

Generation of force

If all muscle cells of a muscle contract together, they generate force on the points of bone insertion of the tendons and this causes the movement of a body segment.
The generation of force on the part of a muscle cell is the last stage of a fairly complex series of events that can be schematically summarized as follows:

• muscle must come, through the motor nerve, an order for contraction; if the movement is voluntary the order starts from a precise area of the brain

sport• the signal transmitted from the nerve triggers into the muscle cells a series of chemical reactions that release chemical energy.
• the chemical energy is transformed into mechanical energy causing the shortening of the muscle cells.


The event 1 is more nervous relevancy, while the events 2 and 3 are typically of muscle physiology as they describe the working of the biological motor.







For an explanation of the operation of the engine can be useful to recall some analogy with the car engine. In the car’s engine the fuel is ignited for intervention of the oxygen, the resulting energy is used to move the pistons. As everyone knows, this chemical reaction of combustion releases energy in a sudden way, it speaks of combustion engine and everyone also know that an engine must have a cooling system to dissipate the considerable amount of heat which is liberated in the blast.
Even in biological motor it is verified an oxidation process of fuel, however, unlike what occurs in the internal combustion engine, there is only one chemical reaction, but a series of many chain chemical reactions: the result is that the energy is released in quantities distributed in time and this avoids a considerable increase of temperature, which would result in irreversible denaturation of the tissues. Obviously, part of the chemical energy is released in the form of heat, but the body has adequate mechanisms to disperse this heat and therefore control the body temperature.

Looking in more detail the operation of the biological motor, it is observed that in the muscle cells are organelles, called mitochondria, which represent a real furnace where are realized the various stages of the oxidative metabolism.

The molecule that enters in the furnace it is always the same and it can come from the metabolism of fat, proteins and sugars. This three group of substances are also indicated as substrate. The decision to metabolize fats, proteins or sugars is loosen from the muscle cell in base to the type of physic activity and to the availability of substrate.
For the example, in the exercise of resistance (long course, mounting walking), the muscle cells chose as main substrate fats.
Conversely, in the work of power they chose the sugars. The cells in effect use a mixture of substrates where dominate now the fats now the sugars. The choice of the proteins isn’t primary, it is verified in two cases: as consequence of the fact that it exists great deficiency of sugars (hypo glycemia), in this case the cell is obligated to destroy in effect protein muscle tissue; in the second case the cell metabolizes proteins that come from the normal protein turnover. It is needed indeed to remember that the protein structures are undertaken to charges and they show “ Mechanical fatigue” similar to what happens to the structures of a plane; cells normally ensure then to destroy the protein molecules partially degraded and to synthesize new ones. On average protein turnover is 1g / kg for day, so in a subject of 70 kg the daily protein requirement is of 70g.

The energy that is freed in some of the reactions chained indicated above is used by the muscle cells for the synthesis of a compound that contains tre phosphoric groups indicated as ATP (adenosine triphosphate) that it is highly energetic. Indeed, the ATP once formed, it is facilitated to give a phosphoric group freeing energy.




This reaction realize in the muscle cell in a modification of the space disposition of the fibrillary molecules known as actin and myosin that is traduced in shortening is temporary and it is followed by the return to the resting state (relaxation).


The muscle cell shows the phenomenon of the fatigue that is that although it is stimulated it is no more able of twitching; this is ascribable to a series of factors such as:

•ATP deficiency
•deficiency of substrate that is used to the resynthesis of ATP
•acidosis by high concentration of lactic acid
•Alteration of the intracellular ions ’s concentration (sodium, potassium, calcium)

It is important to remember that once generate, this factors don’t remove very quickly.
For sure it is necessary a time enough long to compromise an agonistic performance. The rest remove this factors.


When it speaks about an engine it is useful to propose the concept of performance, i.e. the relation between done work and total spending energy to do the work. The performance of the muscle cell and it is very high, about 25%, compering to that one of a combustion engine.
However, the performance of the muscle during the
execution of the complex movement as such as walking and running is surprisingly much higher, reaching 55-60%. This is accomplished by a combined action between muscle and tendon in the particular condition in which the muscle stretches during contraction. It is thought more easily to the shortening of a muscle during contraction, but it is very frequently the case in which a muscle contracts and stretches.
For example down a step down the right leg, simultaneously if you place your hand on the left thigh can detect the contraction of the quadriceps muscle; because the left knee is down, this means that the quadriceps muscle contracts and stretches. Similarly, during a running pace, the setting of the leg support is realized with some knee flexion and contraction of the quadriceps. The same leg support will be then that one which provides the thrust which is realized with the extension of the leg caused by the contraction of the quadriceps. Therefore, the quadriceps muscle remains in contraction in the stance phase (contraction-elongation) and in the subsequent extension phase (contraction-shortening): from the mechanical point of view, in the phase of elongation-tension stores elastic energy which is released in the subsequent step extension. This mechanism allows a considerable energy saving because the force for the extension of the leg is derived from a recovery of elastic energy and not by metabolic activity. The physiological consequence of this mechanism is the low energy cost of the gear and the stroke: about 1 kcal per kg of mass per km traveled.
For a person of 70 kg it takes 70 calories to make 1 km and 700 kcal to make 10 km.

In most cases people are not able to make 10 km and this is not because they do not have available in their organism substrate sufficient to provide 700 kcal. In fact, our organism has a stock of about 500g. sugar that release 2000 kcal, and a few pounds of fat, say 10 kg, equivalent to 9,000 kcal. So based on the amount of sugars and lipids, there would be a ready availability of use 11000 kcal, useful to cover something like 157 km. The inability to cover 10 km (or much less) depends mainly on the poor efficiency.


When practicing sport, both at professional level, and at amateur level, is very important to adopt a healthy diet. In this section discusses the general principles, the differences between sports in terms of nutritional needs and specific diet requirements that must be taken before, during and after a competition.


On the physiological characteristics of the “biological engine” are well defined and essentially unchangeable.

The biological motor, with respect to the mechanical, has an admirable prerogative, it can function by varying the fuel (or, with biological terminology, the substrate) that is represented by fats, sugars, proteins and alcohol.

If we neglect the alcohol, food not found in nature, and we only focus fats, sugars and proteins, we find that the choice of fuel is carried out independently from the muscle cells on the basis of:

• type of work
• availability of substrate (fats, sugars, proteins)

Therefore, wanting to tackle the food problem in sport, we must take account of decisions made independently by the body metabolism.

Physiology made it clear precisely what the energy consumption related to various sports activities and to what extent the various substrates involved to provide the caloric intake. The same is true for another aspect that typically characterizes the sport and that is the balance of water and salt. And well known that sporting activities, in particular in certain environmental conditions, involve sweating, the question is then, how and what to drink?
Some cases can be difficult to treat because, departing from the normal manageable based on experience and common sense.
However it may be that, due to the progressive reduction of physical activity in everyday life, it is parallel lost or greatly weakened the experience that suggests the suitable power in relation to the workload.

In general, the composition of the diet is recommended depending on the model so-called food pyramid:







The transition from the base to the apex of the pyramid symbolizes a progressive reduction of the contribution of a particular food.
The base of the pyramid is occupied by bread, cereals, rice and pasta; above there is a band occupied equally by vegetables and fruit, above still always equally meat and dairy products, the apex of the pyramid, then with a minimum contribution, fats and sweets.
In practice, the model of the pyramid provides a caloric contribution covered:

– At least 50% from carbohydrates coming in equal measure from cereal and fruit

– A substantial intake of vegetable fibers
– A caloric intake of 20% of dairy products and meat
– The remaining 30% from fats

Not surprised the caloric intake of fats, despite the relatively low food intake (30-40 g). Fats have in fact a caloric value of 9 kcal / g, while sugars and proteins 4 kcal / g.

Of course, depending on the characteristics of the individual, the type of sport practiced and the level of athletic preparation, the diet can vary.


Vitamins are a very diverse set of chemicals, normally required in small quantities for the needs of the organism, which regulate a series of metabolic reactions, often working as co-enzymes. The deficiency of vitamins, which is usually defined hypovitaminosis has when the vitamin is present in insufficient quantities in the organism and avitaminosis in cases, much rarer, in which is totally absent, has specific symptoms depending on the type of vitamin and can cause several disorders or diseases.
Hypovitaminosis may depend on insufficient intake of vitamin with food, from an increased requirement, as happens for example in pregnancy, or by the presence of intestinal alterations that prevent the absorption, as in the case of certain diseases or chronic alcoholism.
Usually, the administration of doses of vitamin, through diet or supplements specific, it is sufficient to eliminate the symptoms.
Rarely you can manifest also the contrary condition, to hypervitaminosis, resulting primarily from an excess of intake of supplements.

There are billions of people who in the word have deficiencies of vitamin A, folic acid and other micronutrients no vitamins, such as iron and iodine, essential to a balanced development organism. The result of these weaknesses is the widespread prevalence of birth defects, disabilities and learning difficulties, blindness, mental retardation, weakened immunity system, reduced capacity to operate and work, even premature death.
The same program indicates improvement in the diet, the introduction of fortified foods and food supplements in the eventual supplement with the most effective tools to combat vitamin deficiency and salt minerals.

How many vitamins and what they do

Vitamins can be divided into two main groups:

Water-soluble: non accumulating by organism and then to be taken daily with food. It is all the B group vitamins, including folic acid, vitamin H, PP and C.

Fat-Soluble: they are absorbed together with food fats and accumulated in the liver.
The deficiency is manifested then following a lack assumption for long times. They include the vitamin A, D, E and K.

Water soluble vitamins
B group vitamins
Thiamine (B1): necessary in carbohydrate metabolism, promotes the general state of nutrition of the nerve tissue. The deficiency causes nerve damage, general decay and some specific conditions such as beriberi, widespread among populations that eat mainly of polished rice, and Wernicke’s syndrome, a severe form of confusion. Thiamine is widespread both in plant foods than in animals, such as cereals, legumes, pork’s meat, brewer’s yeast, and it is produced in part by the intestinal flora but its requirement, which is at least 0,8 mg per day (0.4 mg per 1000 kcal assumed) is just covered by a normal diet.

Riboflavin (B2): important for the state of nutrition of the skin and mucous membranes, riboflavin is rarely in the diet of poor people in rich countries. Its deficiency is rather obvious in poor populations, where associated with a general state of undernourishment, causes the alteration in the skin, lesions of the mucous membranes and of the digestive tract. It is widespread in brewer’s yeast, wheat germ, whole grains, liver, meat, milk and eggs and is also produced by the intestinal flora. A certain part, however, is lost with cooking food. The daily requirement is 0.6 mg per 1000 kcal intake.

Pantothenic acid (B5): Vitamin important in the protection of a number of pathological conditions, it is widespread in all foods both animal and vegetable, especially in the liver, egg yolk, legumes and brewer’s yeast. It is deficient only in states of severe malnutrition, and its daily requirement is 3-12 mg a day.
Pyridoxine (B6): precursor of an important enzyme in the metabolism of nitrogen compounds, the presence of vitamin B6 influence the efficient use of protein by the body, but also the hemoglobin synthesis and metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. B6 deficiency is rare, and usually due to apathy and weakness, and sometimes a form of hypochromic anemia, where red blood cells are lighter than usual. It is widespread among the food, in the meat, fish, legumes and is also resistant to many industrial processes. The daily requirement is estimated at least 1.1 mg per day for women and 1.5 mg per day for men.

Cobalamin (B12): it is a group of substances containing cobalt, involved in the metabolism of fat acids, amino acids and nucleic acids. The condition of deficiency is rare, and it can show only in cases of strict vegetarian diet. In this case, it is particularly delicate phase of pregnancy, where the shortage in the mother can have very dangerous effects for the unborn child. But the deficiency can also result from the absence of the factor that facilitates the absorption at the intestinal level, causing disorders in the nervous system and the production of blood cells, up to a form of anemia called ‘pernicious’. It is present in all animal foods in small amounts, especially in the liver, meat, fish, in the milk and eggs, and is resistant to cooking. Its minimum daily requirement, normally covered by the diet, is at least 2 mg per day.

Vitamin C – ascorbic acid
In addition to participating in numerous metabolic reactions and the biosynthesis of collagen, certain amino acids and hormones, vitamin C is also an antioxidant, it intervenes in allergic reactions by strengthening the immune response, it neutralizes free radicals and plays a protective function at stomach level, inhibiting the synthesis of carcinogens. Its deficiency causes a condition called scurvy, a disease that was once very common among sailors who took few fruits and vegetables, whose first symptoms are lethargy, anemia and lack of appetite and then, because of the failure to collagen synthesis, bleeding gums, tooth loss, muscle aches, capillary fragility and bleeding under the skin.
Vitamin C is contained in mainly in fresh foods, like vegetables and fruits, especially kiwi, citrus fruits, tomatoes and peppers. The vitamin is however easily deteriorated during the preservation treatments and cooking, is easily lost during washing and cooking in water and is also damaged by oxygen and heat. To ensure a good intake of vitamin C is therefore necessary to consume fresh fruits and vegetables, and raw or undercooked. The need for vitamin C is 60 mg per day (70 pregnant).

Vitamin H – Biotin
The biotin participates to the glucose synthesis and fat acids. Being a vitamin a lot of present in the foods and too much produced also by the intestinal flora, it usually is not deficient in the organism. There is specially in the liver, in the chicken, in the egg yolk, dried fruit, in several vegetables and fresh fruit, in the milk and cheeses, in the fish. The daily requirement is of 15-100 µg a day, often satisfied by a normal food diet.

Vitamin PP – Niacina
Vitamin PP takes part to the reactions of the cellular breathing, of the synthesis and demolition of the amino acids, fat acids, and cholesterol. The deficiency of niacin causes the pellagra, a condition very common in poor areas also of our country until the beginning of ’900, because of a mainly feeding consisting of corn, low in niacin and rich anti vitamins PP, a substance that is combined with vitamin PP and it makes it unavailable for the organism. Typical symptoms of pellagra are dermatitis, spots and flaking epidermal, intestinal disorders, diarrhea, to neurological disorders, such as dementia. Niacin is widespread in foods of animal origin, and is synthesized by the organism by tryptophan amino acid then a diet based of protein ensures a sufficient supply. The daily requirement is 6.6 mg per 1000 kcal intake.

Fat-soluble Vitamins Retinol – vitamin A
The Retinol and its precursors, carotenoids, are one of the indispensable factors for the view, because they are compounds of the rhodopsin, the sensitive substance to the light present on the eye retina. The retinol deficiency involves defects to the view that can arrive, in more serious cases, until the complete blindness. But vitamin A makes also a role in the process of cellular differentiation, and so it is very important for a correct development of the individual, for its capacity of immunity answer, for the integrity of its system of tissue. Scientific evidences indicate a role of the vitamin A as anticancer agent. So a deficiency of vitamin A can cause fetal malformations, difficulties in the development process and growth, sensitivity to the infections. The retinol is present specially in the animal foods, in the liver, in the cheese, in the batter, in the eggs and in the milk.
In the vegetables there are the carotenoids, especially in the fruit and vegetables of orange, yellow and red color, as tomato, carrot, apricots, watermelon wild berries. The Vitamin A is loosen in big part during the process of cooking. Being fat- soluble , it is accumulated at liver level, and it can includes, if it is assumed in excess, problems of hypervitaminosis that can cause also permanent damages to liver and spleen. So the daily requirement is of 0,6-0,7mg a day of retinol, until to 0,95 during the nursing ( 1mg of retinol amount to 6 mg of β-caroten). It is suggestable to not assume more than 9 mg at day of retinol for men and 7,5 for women.

Tocopherol – Vitamin E
Vitamin E is an antioxidant that gives a contribute to the holding of the cellular integrity. It is oxidized and degraded in easily way at the light and in presence of heat, so during the process of cooking and of that one of refinement of the vegetal oil. It is contained especially in oil fruit, as olives, grain germ, seeds. A deficiency of vitamin E, generally associated to a bad nutrition, involves general defects development, including disorders of the nervous system and the general metabolism. The requirement is around about 8 mg per day.

Calciferol – vitamin D
There are two forms of vitamin D: the ergocalciferol, taken with food, and cholecalciferol synthesized by the organism. Vitamin D is a regulator of calcium metabolism and therefore also favors a correct mineralization of the skeleton. Most of the vitamin D is synthesized by the organism, by the action of the rays of the sun, starting from derivatives of cholesterol present in the skin. Deficiency of vitamin D is a risk of rickets in children, resulting in bone deformation and stunted, and osteomalacia in adults, an intense form of bone decalcification. An excess of vitamin D, controversly, can cause diffuse calcifications in the organs, muscle contractions and spasms, vomiting, diarrhea. The normal exposure to sunlight is sufficient to cover the needs of vitamin D in adults, and should be taken only during the growth phase and during pregnancy and nursing. In these cases the assumption should be of 10μg at day as a supplement, having regard to the low level of vitamin D in food, with the exception of cod liver oil.

Vitamin K
Vitamin K plays an important role in the process of blood clotting. A deficiency, which occurs however rarely after diseases that prevent the intestinal absorption or prolonged antibiotic treatments, therefore involves bleeding.
The requirement for vitamin K is about 60 µg at day, normally covered by endogenous synthesis at the level of the intestinal flora. Sources of vitamin K are vegetables, especially cabbage and spinach, and the liver.










Fat-soluble vitamins
Vitamin A1 Retinol
Vitamin A2 Deidroretinolo
Vitamin D2 Ergocalciferol
Vitamin D3 cholecalciferol
Vitamin E Tocopherol
Vitamin K1 Phylloquinone, phytomenadione
Vitamin K2 Farnochinone
Vitamin K3Menadione

Water soluble vitamins
Vitamin B1 Thiamin, aneurine, vitamin antineuritica
Vitamin B2 Riboflavin lattoflavina
Vitamin PP Nicotinamide, niacinamide, nicotinic acid, niacin

Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine
Vitamin B12 Cobalamin
Vitamin B12B Hydroxycobalamin
Vitamin B12C Nitritocobalamina
Vitamin B5 Pantothenic acid
vitamin M or Bc Folic acid, folacin
Vitamin H Biotin
Vitamin C Ascorbic Acid











Many minerals are an essential part of enzymes.
They also participate actively in the regulation of many physiological functions.
These include the transport of oxygen to each cells, muscle contraction and the participation in various ways in ensuring the regular functions of the central nervous system.

Minerals are required in the growth, maintenance, repair and health of tissues and bones. The most minerals (zinc is an exception) is widely distributed in foods.
A complete diet will be lacking for a few essential minerals. Nevertheless, there are exceptions.

Iron deficiency is common in infants, children and pregnant women. Deficiencies of zinc and copper are quite frequent.

Minerals are inorganic chemical elements participating in many biochemical and physiological processes necessary for optimal growth, development and health.
You must make a clear distinction between the terms and important mineral and oligos element.
If the body requires more than 100 mg at day of a mineral, the substance takes the name of mineral. If the body requires less than 100 mg per day the substance is said oligos element.

Many minerals are essential components of enzymes.
They also actively participate in the regulation of many physiological functions including the transport of oxygen to each of the 60 trillion cells in our body, providing the stimulus for muscle contraction and ensuring the normal function of the central nervous system.

The minerals are required for growth, maintenance, repair and tissue health.

The most minerals are widely distributed in foods. In the Western world a serious shortage of minerals is rare.
A typical diet provides most of the essential minerals; only for a few turns a shortage. An iron deficiency is common in infants, children and during pregnancy.
Deficiencies of zinc and copper are relatively frequent.
Also for the needs of minerals prescribing a specific diet it appears as the most suitable solution. They are considered essential even Nickel, Tin, Silicon and Arsenic.
These adapters are not included because all the available information on oligos elements, come from studies done on animals and not humans.











The amino acids (arginine, phenylalanine, l-cysteine, l-lysine, methionine, taurine, tyrosine, tryptophan) form the main structure of the proteins, many of which they are essential for the growth, development and human nutrition.
Integration with forms available on the market should not be necessary. The known amino acids that make up proteins are numerous, but only 23 regularly found in hydrolysates of proteins commonly used as food and therefore are called amino acids ordinary; other amino acids that occur from time to time are called occasional.

From a chemical point of view we have amino acids:

• monocarboxylic monoamines;

• monocarboxylic diaminos;
• dicarboxylic monoamine;
• imino acids (Proline and Ossiprolina); and the semi starches:
• asparagine;
• Glutamine.

Protein Amino acid

Amino acids with aliphatic side chains
Glycine Gly
Alanine Ala
Valine Val
Leucine Leu
Isoleucine Ile
Amino acid with side chains with hydroxyl
Serine Ser
Threonine Thr
Cysteine Cys
Methionine Met
Amino acids with side chains containing acidic groups or their starches
Aspartic acid Asp
Asparagine Asn
Glutamic acid Glu
Glutamine Gln
Amino acids with side chains containing basic groups
Arginine Arg
Lysine Lys
Idrossilina Hyl
His histidine
Amino acids with aromatic rings
Phenylalanine Phe
Tyrosine Tyr
Tryptophan Trp
Proline Pro
4-hydroxyproline Hyp

Events deficiency individual amino acids in humans

Cystine Cysteine Necrosis and liver atrophy, skin lesions, tendency to edema and infections.
Phenylalanine Tyrosine Alterations in thyroid function and adrenal, pigmentary abnormalities, anemia.
Isoleucine Threonine Alteration retentions exogenous hypoproteinemic, edema, weight loss.
Histidine Anemia, cataract.
Leucine Atrophy of the liver, testes, thymus, adrenal, pituitary, keratitis. Hypoproteinemia, proteinemia.
Lysine Delayed height-weight growth, inhibition of ossification pituitary,changes in the menstrual cycle, lactation, sexual activity, anemia.
Methionine fatty degeneration of the liver, cirrhosis, decreased resistance to toxic substances, anemia, keratitis, kidney damages, muscle atrophy, hypoproteinemia, alopecia.
Tryptophan Sterility, keratitis, cataract, alopecia, lack of enamel, pellagra, anemia.
Valine Hyperesthesia, ataxia, clonic rotator spasms, impaired muscle coordination, degeneration of the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord.