At any time, our organism is exposed to attack from pathogens, but only when we are suffering from an infectious process, we realize how essential is the organism ‘s defense system, the immune system.
The immunity system has two components: innate immunity and acquired immunity.
Before describing the mechanisms of immunity defenses is worth taking a look at the large number of pathogens that can be harmful to the organism.
Parasites are the most voluminous, but not the most dangerous enemies of the immunity system. This is especially roundworms, nematelminti, tapeworms, visible only under a microscope or meters long, and are setting up mainly in the intestine, but they can also migrate to other tissues destroying them; it is the case, for example, of the cisticercoedi some tapeworms.
Smaller than the parasites due to the naked eye, are unicellular organisms (protozoa).
The bacteria are still smaller than the unicellular parasites, in the order of measurement of micrometers. Contrary to the cells of animal and plant organisms (eukaryotes), the bacteria belong to the so-called prokaryotes, i.e. living beings without nucleus bounded by the membrane and with an internal particular environment.
They possess a ring DNA and a cell wall rich in carbohydrates.
Paradoxically, some bacteria live in the human body with mutual benefits: the intestinal flora, for example, is composed mostly of bacteria that do not require oxygen.
They derive nourishment from digestion residues, thereby thickening the faeces, contributing to the supply of vitamins as well as by tying the ammonia excess.
Most of the bacteria environment is however not so harmless.
The bacteria cause purulent inflammation (boils) at local and general diseases (lung inflammation) that, in people with reduced immunity, overcome the defenses provided by the immune system and can cause a bacterial dissemination in the circle (sepsis) with fatal consequences.
A bacterial infection is initially localized in a well determined point, but can thereafter extend to the whole body. The so-called pus is made from bacteria and leukocytes disintegrating.
Even fungiare are potential pathogens. They involve on the skin, mucous membranes and include also internal organs, especially in immune-deficient the subject (for example patients suffering from AIDS).
Pathogens more harmful are viruses, which have dimensions of a few nanometers. This is not autonomous organism, but of molecular complexes consist of a chain of DNA or RNA that is packaged in a protein shell, sometimes even in a glycoprotein capsule.
The viruses introduce their genetic information in the nuclear DNA of a host cell, programming it so that it itself produces more and more viruses. Of course without the host cell the virus cannot replicate.
Precisely because of this form of replication, it is particularly difficult for the immunity system to prevent a viral infection. Because of the same viruses, being small in size, are hardly attackable, the immunity system must necessarily destroy infected cells.
The majority of infections, such as the common cold, are caused by viruses. A viral infection often appears simultaneously in multiple organs, usually with an attack of fever.
Finally, the immunity system reacts against some harmful molecules of large dimension, toxins. The best known example is that of diphtheria toxin. The organism is unable to defend itself against diphtheria but, thanks to the diphtheria, can inactivate the exotoxin produced by the germ.
Physical stimuli (for example ultraviolet rays) and chemicals cause damages in the DNA and can transform normal cells into neoplastic cells.
Natural or innate immunity
Even before birth, the organism not only develops a series of defense mechanisms specific too much complex that act on specific pathogens, but also a nonspecific mode of attack of many microorganisms.
The firsts guarantee to the developing organisms some basic protection against infections and are the prerequisite to reaching some immunity even over new types of pathogens. The seconds are a pre-requisite for the specific mechanisms highly sophisticated.
Innate strategies of humoral defense not mediated by specific cells are the followings:
• Complement System
• Migration of lymphocytes
• Protection from infection trough the interferon
• Lysis of bacteria
Non-specific macromolecules of immunity system, present in the blood, are the oldest evolutionary system of defense against infections.
The most important element of the nonspecific humoral defense, which is the system of the completion, is constituted by a series of protein molecules aimed at the same function.
It is composed by about 20 different plasma proteins: C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C7, C8, C9, C10, C11 about other 10 more control proteins.
It is activated either via an antigen-antibody reaction (classical pathway) or by direct bacterial cell wall carbohydrates (alternative route).
The complicated mechanisms that conclude the cascade of reactions of completion system practice at last a series of holes in the cell membrane of a pathogen or a cell in the organism infected. This determinate the death of the infected cell or of pathogen.
The complement cascade
In case of inflammation are released mediators (cytokines) that attract white blood cells from the blood into the tissues. The attraction of autologous cells through chemical messengers called chemotaxis.
Migration of leukocytes
In case of viral infection has, on the part of infected cells, a release of interferon. It is a signaling molecule that is released by white blood cells infected by viruses and connective cells to protect cells not yet been infected. This strategy is a drastic reduction, even if temporary, inside the cells, the neo-synthesis of proteins own or foreign to the organism; in this way is slowed down also the multiplication of viruses.
The lysosome directly attacks the cell wall of certain bacteria that is carbohydrates, unless this is protected by a capsule glycoprotein. Lysozyme, an enzyme also present in the saliva, directly attacks the cell wall of certain bacteria, before they have the opportunity to penetrate inside the body.
Strategies innate humoral defense mediated by specific cells are the followings:
• System of phagocytes
• Natural Killer Cells
The mononuclear phagocyte system (MFS) includes all the organs in which there are macrophages (from the greek: big eaters) and other phagocytic cells; in particular, it has developed in the lymph nodes, liver and bone marrow.
Macrophages can engulf foreign bodies: their cytoplasm is rolled around the foreign body trap it in a vesicle bounded by the cytoplasmic membrane (phagosome). Inside the cell this phagosome joins to lysosomes, vesicles containing active digestive enzymes, constituting the phagolysosome in which takes place the proper digestion.
Natural killer cells counteract the virus. It is large lymphocytes with an extended cytoplasm containing granules, which are able to recognize the diseased cells and pierce the membrane them with a special protein (perforin). In this way inoculate into the target cell enzymes that lead to a degradation of DNA, causing the death of the cell itself. The process takes the name of “apoptosis”.
Natural killer cells
Acquired or adopted immunity
When it comes to immune defense often refers to acquired immunity through specific mechanisms, or systems specialized in response to a pathogen well determined.
Acquired immunity or adopted consists of:
• Cells of the “Memory”
Lymphocytes are responsible for the effects of specific immune defenses. It is of small cells in the bone marrow that differentiate into B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes.
The T lymphocytes are by far the most frequent type.
Their name derives thymus, where they mature and are selected. It is in fact possible to distinguish three subpopulations of T lymphocytes: T cells “helper”, T cells “suppressor” and T cells “cytotoxic”.
B lymphocytes, however, possess the ability to become large plasma cells, which are the effector cells specific humoral immunity. They secrete antibodies in large quantities.
Cells of the “memory” are activated in the presence of a second infection caused by the same pathogen. The immune response in this case develops much more rapidly and more effectively than before.
The formation of specific cell of memory constitutes the true principle on which is based on each vaccine.
The immunoglobins are the “sense organs” of the immune system, being able to distinguish and identify the substances of the organism and those extraneous to it.
They are located as receptors on the surface of B lymphocytes or are secreted as antibodies in the blood plasma.
The necessity of the presentation of the antigens is explained in good part by the mechanisms of protection devised by the microorganisms, which have precisely the purpose of preventing that lymphocytes can recognize them. If a cell that presents antigens assumes the pathogen and digests partially within its phagolysosome, the ability to expose in surface the antigen itself is greater.
Infections are the starting point of many diseases but are often not severe enough to require a medical examination. However, apart from those arising from everyday life such as cuts and small wounds, the infection can cause several serious diseases, including glands or swollen tonsils, sore throat, colds, hay fever, gangrene, encephalitis and viral pneumonia. White blood cells, lymphocytes and antibodies mobilize to prevent bacteria, viruses or toxins from entering the body. A proper diet is essential to maintain and strengthen these defenses. Symptoms of infection may be fever, joint pain, redness, inflammation and pus.
The antioxidant nutrients such as vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, B vitamins, selenium, zinc and magnesium, can help.
Stress quickly depletes the reserves of many nutrients including B complex and vitamin C. These nutrients are essential for the formation of antibodies. In addition, vitamin C directly destroys bacteria, viruses and toxins and helps the adrenal glands by stimulating the production of antibodies and white blood cells.
Also the Vitamin A plays an important role in antibody production and in the prevention and treatment of infections of the skin, the eye cornea and the membrane that covers all the cavities of the body. The level of vitamin A in the blood drops drastically when supervening infections and a great deal is lost in the urine.
The cortisone and other drugs administered for the treatment of infections can deplete reserves of this vitamin in the body. If you take antibiotics, the acidophilus is a supplement necessary to replace the intestinal bacteria destroyed.
Diet is important. The natural defenses of the body are made of protein, you cannot then have full recovery from any infection if the body does not receive sufficient quantities of protein. It is recommended to limit the consumption of nicotine, alcohol and food additives because they weaken the immune system. The recommended foods are broccoli, strawberries, tomatoes, green vegetables and orange, whole grains, oysters, liver, legumes (lentils), cottage cheese, mackerel, pork, oranges, blackberries and green peppers.
Where the person is too sick to eat, can develop acidosis, resulting in irritability, headaches and nausea. To mitigate this disorder is recommended ingestion of small amounts of complex carbohydrates, such as fruits, fruit juices or any food containing starches or sugars natural, every two or three hours.
Herbs that may be helpful are alfalfa (mycosis), aloe, crushed leaves of apple, lemon balm (streptococci), barberry (streptococci and staphylococci), bay leaves crushed hemp aquatic ( influenza type virus), burdock (bacteria and fungi), gattaria grass (gardening injuries), compresses of chamomile, cinnamon (decay, fungi and viruses that cause disease), cloves (intestinal parasites) , coriander and marshmallow (minor wounds and cuts), cranberries and dill (urinary tract infections), dandelion and echinacea (fungal infections), garlic (female bladder infections, fungal infections and flu viruses), ginger (infectious diseases), the goldenseal (fungal infections, bacterial and protozoal), hops (fights and prevents bacterial infections), kelp (bacteria and fungi), licorice (streptococci, staphylococci, Candida albicans or fungal infections), oil of peppermint (herpes virus), chili (increases resistance), rosemary (small cuts and wounds), St. John’s wort and turmeric (wound care), tarragon (ready gardening rescue), the bearberry (wound healing and, in cream, facial herpes and vaginal infections). Homeopathic remedies for dental infections include Pyrogen 12X or 30X and Hepar sulph, not less than 30X. Yoga is recommended.
NUTRIENTS THAT MAY BE EFFECTIVE IN THE TREATMENT OF INFECTION:
Organs Substance Quantity *
General Vitamin A
B complex 25 mg daily
Vitamin B6 10-30 mg per day
Pantothenic acid 100-300 mg daily
Vitamin C 2000-3000 mg per day
Acidophilus In case of antibiotic therapy
Virus Vitamin A According to the prescribed doses
B Complex High Concentration
Pantothenic acid 100-200 mg daily
Vitamin C with bioflavonoids from 3,000 to 10,000 mg at da
Germanium 200 mg daily
Zinc 50-100 mg daily
Kelp 6 tablets once a day
Proteolytic enzymes 2 capsules between meals L-cysteine
garlic 2capsules 3 times a day
They ARE MANY VIRUSES and bacteria dangerous to human health. But what do we know of these microorganisms that threaten the man? Especially what we know of the relations between them and that, somehow, they bind them to us? Our test offers the opportunity to study the problem of infections as a whole, highlighting the variety of approaches – environmental, ecological, technological and sociological – essential to fully understand the host-parasite interactions and to better defend ourselves from our “internal predators”.
The ancestors prokaryotic
About the bacteria is good to know that the pathogenic ones (harmful to your host) – as well as symbionts (not harmful) – are relatively rare. Besides bacteria (or prokaryotic) existed long before their guests eukaryotic, which could then do without. Indeed, probably, without these precursors, we would never be born, since the appearance and diversification of the first eukaryotes took place only after the origin, for endosymbiosis, the mitochondria, organelles essential present within our cells. It is also interesting to note that symbionts and pathogens mostly use the same mechanisms to penetrate its guests, it confirmed evidence from genetic studies, which show an unsuspected homogeneity in the genes of different organisms. We speak today of “islands of pathogenesis”, as well as of “islands of symbiosis”, to describe those gene regions, highly conserved, containing genes that allow the bacterium to interact with their host (in a more or less harmful way).
These results go against the hypothesis, in the past most widespread view that the evolution of all organisms is through the accumulation of random mutations and natural selection acting intervening on this basic heterogeneity. Today, it is believed that the bacteria acquire the different characteristics (for example become pathogens or symbionts) through the acquisition of entire genes. The same applies to the loss of genes, which may prove a means for the adaptation of the microorganism to various environmental conditions. Therefore, the changes and diversification would be needed in bacteria by following mode are quite different from those shown in other organisms. In this case, the study of genomic sequences could, for the first time, provide concrete data on the origin of the interactions and associations between bacteria and eukaryotes.
Those who are forced to “ask hospitality” in prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells are viruses. These particles extremely simple – that maybe you cannot even define real living organisms – it cannot replicate on their own, so they should take advantage of the internal cell machinery to copy its genetic material and create new virus particles. For them it is therefore essential to fit within different organisms, regardless of cellular and molecular barriers for the cells defense. Great attention, therefore, was placed on the ways in which viruses attack their hosts and the picture of the interactions that establish with the macromolecules at the cell surface has become increasingly complex.
Arouses impression, above all, the great flexibility of the viruses in the use of membrane receptors, through which penetrate in the cells. Feature, this, which has important implications for human and animal infections. On the one hand, in fact, this issue is worrying, because it could invalidate antiviral therapies designed to hamper the virus-receptor interactions: if attackers can take advantage of alternative molecules, it could be useless block using a single ligand or analog of receptor. A second implication of this viral capacity is had in organ transplants and especially in xenotransplantation, that might be capable of transmitting infection between man and different animal species. Even, similar considerations, we warn against reckless practices, such as the deliberate release of virulent strains, as the agents control to combat the outbreaks.
Wide variability of guests…
Several infectious agents (bacteria, viruses, fungi, prions) that cause serious disease in man or other animals can be transmitted from one species to another. In fact, most of the pathogens using guests that differ considerably. Yet our knowledges of the biology of these organisms are still scarce; too, if you think that widespread diseases (such as influenza) infections and a high mortality rate (such as Alzheimer’s Crutzfeld Jacobs) are caused by pathogens such. Missing elements to clarify the benefits of the “generalist”. The evolution, in fact, should encourage “specialists”, because the pathogens that do not specialize for a single host are disadvantaged by the selection in different habitats and cannot co-evolve with the organism in which they live. But the fact remains that the majority of the infectious agents are, however, generalist.
But the biomedical science is already preparing to face the study of biology – certainly more complex – the infectious agents that attack different species, probably one of the most compelling challenges of the coming years, which could help understand and treat diseases very harmful to man and other animals.
… And of hosted
But to fight infection is not enough focus on this aspect of the problem. Indeed, there is a downside: the same host can be attacked by various pathogens. Technological advances have made it possible to demonstrate, in a patient, the co-presence of different genotypes of the same infectious agent. Therefore, factors such as the virulence, severity and drug resistance may be affected by the co-presence of different clones and being influenced by them.
Medical therapies (or veterinary) alter the number of genotypes that interact during an infection, often by directly changing the dynamics between the various clones. Only now they are beginning to clarify the consequences that these actions have on public health. Negative effects, such as the risk of eliminating competition, to the benefit of drug-resistant strains. The presence of different genotypes can also promote or decrease the transmission, and then pharmacologically alter the relationship between pathogens can, in some cases, accelerate the propagation of the infection. In essence, the epidemiology is a specific example of ecology of meta-populations, a discipline that has to be deepened if you want to understand the long-term consequences of the use of therapies that alter the level of competition between pathogens.
From the long list of pathogens, it is expected an exhaustive description of the clinical symptoms associated with different bacteria, viruses, protozoa and fungi, but to stay in tune with the principle of holistic medicine we try to understand the true value and the message of the disease in relation to pathogens take root commonly attributed to the several pathologies.
Infections represent one of the most frequent reasons triggering of pathological processes in the human body. Most of the symptoms that occur in acute form are inflammations, starting from cold up to measles. In the large field of infectious diseases modern medicine has had great success with the discovery of antibiotics and vaccinations. This does not mean that we take less infections, but simply that we invented good weapons to fight them.
In inflammatory processes are witnessing a real “battle in the body”: the dangerous aggression of enemy agents (bacteria, viruses, parasites and toxins) are addressed and overcome by the defense system of the body. We live this battle in the form of swelling, redness, pain and fever.
From the holistic viewpoint “every infection is a conflict become matter.” Who tends to infection and inflammation, it is a person who tries to avoid conflicts. The conflict in the psyche avoided making their way into the body and they are manifested as inflammation.
The penetration of bacteria, viruses or toxins depends not so much by their presence, as the availability of the body to let in pathogens. These agents are placed in certain weaknesses of the body, called loci minoris resistentiae (places of least resistance), it is, namely, about that that organ transfers the learning process on the physical plane when the man does not consciouslyprocess the corresponding psychic problem organ.
For example: respiratory diseases, from colds that never goes out, the chronic bronchitis all have the same core, and it should focus attention on what prevents the breath, about what you do not want to accept.
Diseases of the stomach materialize on the organ feelings of envy, jealousy and hatred locked in the unconscious.
In conclusion we reiterate that anyone who is prone to recurrent infections is a person who tries to delete their conflicts, necessarily therefore, necessary to interpret the symbolism of the affected organ that only an expert in holistic techniques can be done with the support of our test.
What we offer Our Test?
The ability to evaluate in a comprehensive and holistic susceptibility to infections with a functional assessment of organic dystonia even giving us guidance on proper nutrition to follow:
Take with moderation rare meat, most preferring a diet rich in vegetable fibers: seasonal fruit.
If in the intestine there is a high accumulation of mucus, it means that there is a large functional alteration of the intestinal flora and consequently serious alterations of the MALT system of the immunity system. It will be easy to get sick, have constipation, chronic fatigue, premature aging. It will be advised you to follow a diet anti mucus for about 60 days and the situation will return to normal by removing beef meat, chicken, turkey, flour 00 type and dairy products.
If there is alteration of intestinal mucus that – in some cases – causing organ dysfunction and accumulation of toxins, headaches, constipation and other diseases by accumulation of toxins in the intestine. You will have to follow a diet anti mucus to clean the body and drinking plenty of water (recommended Panel S10 – waters intolerance test).
If you are predisposed to infections in the throat even sub clinical as tonsillitis and pharyngitis, tracheitis and mouth infection, you have to follow a proper diet and oral hygiene, and perform (in the case of attacks from winter flu) a homeopathic-natural protocol to detoxify the organism and raise the immunity system.
If the preparation is evident at the level of genital system we will have a probability index to develop infections or STDs, must drain the system with a diet of 40 days (we recommend the thema 400 food intolerance).
If there are manifestations of intestinal candida may have disease such as drowsiness, fatigue, depression, poor digestion, poor concentration, constipation or colitis, allergies, intestinal pain. We recommend a diet of 40 days after a control of their food intolerances and a protocol anti-candida based on natural products.
If they are high concentrations of bacterial endotoxins, this could mean that during some antibiotic treatment their slag formed after the death of the bacteria were not properly drained from the body.
We must implement a protocol draining.
If the immunity system is designed to be a high percentage of attack by bacteria that affect the eyes and optic nerves, causing conjunctivitis, ocular or other nuisances. It is advisable to protect your eyes with proper spagyrists or natural precautions and follow a protocol to raise the immunity system.
A high predisposition to certain bacteria probably had wounds or abscesses, turns out to be a wakeup call for skin problems, indigestion, fatigue, joint pain. Therapy is recommended for the purification of the colon and skin drainage.
If there is bacterial susceptibility to the bones, of synovium, skeletal-muscle in general, it is recommended that control of calcium metabolism (thema 07) and a diet rich in minerals and vitamins.
If there are predispositions bacterial to the urinary tract they could bring trouble even sub clinical for several years, it is recommended that a homeopathic drainage protocol sipped bacteria without causing inflammation or load too many kidneys. Eliminate from the diet food too spicy and yeasts.
Some trends in bacterial sequence homology with the family of bacteria similar to brucella, listeria or other derivatives as well as animals; they could have consequences for the circulation, the heart or a widespread bacterial invasion of the system. This could lead to caries, gastritis, changes in sleep, or other problems of nervous origin that end up affecting the heart and blood pressure. We recommend a low-sodium diet and a controlled diet with Thema 400 food intolerance and a homeopathic-phytotherapic protocol to drain the toxins of these pathogenic bacteria and defend the heart and immunity system.
If there is a predisposition to the Epstein-Barr virus, the herpes virus family. It is often identified as the “kissing disease” or infectious mononucleosis. It is transmitted through saliva and remains in incubation for 7-15 days.
Commonly it affects people between 15 and 30 years. But once in the blood it remains latent and sometimes appears in cycles. Generally, tends to inflate the spleen, it brings pain in the throat, and swollen lymph nodes in the neck. Some research seems that EBV remains latent in the lymphoid tissues and transform lymph nodes causing them to mutate to become possible tumors, Burkit lymphoma.