What is it?
With the term hyperglycemia we mean a condition characterized by blood glucose values (blood glucose concentration) higher than the physiological ones.
- The physiological values of fasting glycaemia, or the concentration of glucose in the blood, range from 70-110 mg / dl;
- A fasting blood sugar level of more than 110 mg / indicates hyperglycemia.
- Normal blood glucose level must be less than 140 mg/dL 2 hours after eating.
- If this values is greater than 140 mg / dl, we speak of hyperglycemia.
The underlying causes of hyperglycemia are different:
- It can have a genetic cause in the case of type I diabetes;
- It can have environmental causes linked to poor eating habits, diets rich in saturated fatty acids and sugars, sedentary lifestyle in the case of type II diabetes.
- It can be due to a stressful condition, in which there is an increase in hyperglycemic hormones such as cortisol or catecholamines.
- It may depend on the use of drugs such as steroids, beta-blockers, antipsychotics or growth hormone, drugs with hyperglycemic action.
Hyperglycemia is characterized by the symptoms of the 3 P’s:
- Poliura, i.e. increased urine production;
- Polyphagia, or increased hunger;
- Polydpsia, i.e. increased thirst.
But there are also other associated symptoms:
- Blurring of vision;
- Intense sweating;
- Acetonemic breath;
- Urinary tract infections.
The diagnosis of hyperglycemia can be made with several tests:
- Blood glucose measurement;
- Lancing device;
- Glycemic load;
- Glycated hemoglobin;
- Presence of ketone bodies in the urine.
There are different types of drugs that are used to restore blood glucose values:
- The biguanide family inhibits the production of glucose in the liver and increases the uptake of glucose from the blood to the muscle cells.
- Metformin which reduces intestinal absorption of glucose;
- Dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors reduce the degradation of intestinal hormones (GLP-1 and GIP) that stimulate insulin and inhibit glucagon.
There are several natural remedies you can use to control your blood sugar:
- Eucalyptus is rich in antioxidants that lower the intestinal absorption of sugars.
- Myrtle also reduces the intestinal absorption of sugars;
- Elderberry has phytosterols that stimulate the action of insulin;
- Scientific studies show that galega enhances the action of insulin and reduces the intestinal absorption of sugars;
- Opuntia is rich in polysaccharides that reduce the intestinal absorption of sugars;
- American ginseng is also rich in polysaccharides that reduce the intestinal absorption of sugars;
- Scientific studies show that spices such as turmeric and cinnamon have a hypoglycemic action.
Surely the basic rule of a diet for hyperglycemia is to take care of the diet not only in the quantity but also in the quality of carbohydrates:
- 60% in the daily breakdown of whole grains;
- Yes to the consumption of legumes, at least 3 times a week;
- Yes to the consumption of dried fruit, rich in omega 6 with a hypolipidic and hypoglycemic action;
- Yes to the frequent consumption of blue fish, with a hypolidipic and hypoglycemic action;
- Yes to the consumption of vegetables rich in water and fiber, components with hypoglycemic action;
- Avoid the consumption of alcohol or liqueur wines;
- Avoid the consumption of any form of industrial product such as sweets, candies, cookies or sugary drinks;
- Prefer the consumption of organic baked goods or confectionery products.